Professional Scrum Master II exam Dumps

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The Professional Scrum MasterTM level II (PSM II) assessment is available to anyone who wishes to demonstrate his or her ability to apply the Scrum framework to solving advanced, complex problems in the real world. Those that pass the assessment will receive the industry recognized PSM II Certification as an indication of their advanced knowledge and abilities pertaining to Scrum and the role of the Scrum Master.

Anyone attempting the PSM II should have advanced Scrum knowledge, in-depth Scrum experience and/or have taken the Professional Scrum Master course prior to taking this assessment. However, attending a course is neither necessary nor sufficient for certification. The PSM II assessment is very difficult, and consists of multiple-choice questions based on your knowledge of Scrum and how you would handle real-world situations.

The PSM II certification assessment is an advanced assessment and relies heavily on your own experience using scrum, and how you would apply Scrum in particular circumstances. While it is not required we recommend that before taking PSM II you have a passed PSM I and may find it beneficial to review the PSM I Suggested studying page during your preparation.

The PSM II assessment includes questions from the following Focus Areas as defined in the Professional Scrum Competencies.

Understanding and Applying the Scrum Framework:
Empiricism, Scrum Values, Roles, Events, Artifacts, Done.
Developing People and Teams:
Self-Organizing Teams, Facilitation, Leadership Styles, Coaching and Mentoring.
Managing Products with Agility:
Product Backlog Management, Stakeholders & Customers.
Developing and Delivering Products Professionally:
Managing Technical Risk.
Evolving the Agile Organization:
Organizational Design & Culture.

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influence of preseason practising, health, and current damage on subsequent rugby injury

abstract

ambitions—To check the have an effect on of preseason health, current harm, and preseason rugby practicing on subsequent injury.

methods—gamers have been eligible for the survey in the event that they were a member of a Scottish Rugby Union (SRU) affiliated rugby membership in the Border Reivers District of the SRU all over the 1997–1998 season. a total of 803 (84%) avid gamers from 22 (88%) taking part golf equipment provided details of rugby working towards, accidents sustained, and real pastime undertaken all through the 16 week summer season duration (26 April to sixteen August 1997) and their perceived health earlier than the birth of the season. Observers at taking part golf equipment stated all damage episodes taking place to membership avid gamers right through the 1997–1998 season.

effects—One fifth of gamers did not attend any rugby training throughout the sixteen week summer season length; the the rest attended a median of 14 classes. during the 1997–1998 season, 675 harm episodes befell to 423 (fifty three%) avid gamers throughout practising or in suits. After adjustment for whether avid gamers held a professional contract or were amateurs, Cox regression showed a three.9% relative increase (ninety five% self assurance interval (CI) 1.9 to 5.9%) in the possibility of injury over the season for every additional preseason working towards week attended, and a sixty one% relative increase (ninety five% CI 32 to 97%) for these gamers who had been injured or had been carrying an injury on the end of the outdated season.

Conclusions—damage chance is more likely to be involving rugby practising (classification of actions undertaken in rugby practising, or personalities and characteristics of avid gamers conducting training more generally) than to overall participant health. gamers who had been injured on the end of the outdated season had been greater more likely to be injured in right here season. This could be as a result of they don't enable outdated injuries to heal sufficiently earlier than returning to the game, or the depth of their participation may additionally raise their risk of damage.

  • fitness
  • injury possibility
  • preseason
  • rugby soccer
  • practicing
  • Take domestic message

    avid gamers who attend rugby practicing greater frequently usually tend to be due to this fact injured, however there isn't any proof to imply that here is as a result of they are training too complicated or too generally. harm risk is more likely to be regarding the classification of rugby working towards activities undertaken or the personalities and features of avid gamers in place of common participant health. gamers may still be encouraged to permit their injuries to heal sufficiently before returning to the game.

    even though participation charges in rugby union are fairly low in comparison with other activities in the uk, the percentage of injured gamers and the annual rate of grownup casualty attendances per a thousand participants are excessive.1,2 As smartly as the direct prices of clinical remedy, virtually three in ten gamers omit college or work on account of their harm.3 greater injuries turn up within the previous a part of the season,three–6 and it has been advised that this may be linked to preseason working towards and fitness.6–9 We here determine the affect of preseason training and fitness and present damage on subsequent harm.

    strategies

    The major methods used in this survey were suggested somewhere else.10 avid gamers have been eligible for the survey in the event that they have been a member of a Scottish Rugby Union (SRU) affiliated rugby club within the Border Reivers District of the SRU during the 1997–1998 season. In August 1997, research nurses and physiotherapists visited 22 of the 25 golf equipment who agreed to participate, all through the week before the primary match, and invited eligible players to comprehensive a questionnaire. gamers who did not attend rugby practicing had been contacted by means of telephone. a total of 803 (eighty four%) players, together with all 30 avid gamers who were employed by the Border Reivers District or the SRU, offered counsel on their real exercise degree (none, light, medium, or heavy) and standard weekly hours of manual work undertaken during the preseason length (sixteen week summer time period from 26 April to 16 August 1997). players also provided particulars of the variety of weeks and periods they'd attended rugby training in preseason preparation, and the common variety of weekly hours of different fitness and wearing activities undertaken all over this duration. avid gamers stated if they had been injured or were carrying an injury on the conclusion of the previous season, if an damage had delayed the delivery of their preseason rugby practising, and in the event that they had been injured right through preseason practicing. players' estimates of their perceived health—on a scale of 0 (now not fit in any respect) to 10 (extraordinarily fit)—when it comes to speed, power, and stamina had been bought.

    Observers at taking part clubs pronounced damage episodes happening to any participant who became registered with their club throughout the 1997–1998 season. A rugby harm changed into described as an harm sustained on the field throughout a aggressive suit or all over practising that avoided the player from taking part in or practising from the time of injury or from the conclusion of the suit or working towards session in which the damage turned into sustained. players achieved a diary of fits performed all through the first and second halves of the season within the middle and at the end of the season respectively.

    VALIDATION OF questions about health belief

    In June 1997, 38 avid gamers being regarded for the under 19 Scottish team squad participated in a validation study of the fitness belief questions used in this survey. They accomplished the questions on their perceived speed and stamina, before performing two 50 m runs and a shuttle test (Multi-stage fitness check, national teaching foundation, Headingley, Leeds, UK), which concerned working a distance of 20 m (time and again) within specific deadlines (indicated by using “beeps” from a prerecorded tape). The time interval allowed for the primary run could be performed by means of a going for walks tempo, however the tempo required grew to become progressively sooner for every successive minute (up to 20 minutes). The players had to maintain inside the time limits and so had to tempo themselves to be able to comprehensive the examine. The test become terminated for someone player when he didn't finished the 20 m shuttle within the time allowed on two separate events. The variety of minutes for which a player became capable of comprehensive the shuttle runs within the dispensed time became noted. There changed into a relatively powerful relation between perceived pace and the ordinary time taken to finished both 50 m runs (Spearman's rank correlation, r = −0.73, p<0.001) and an adequate relation between perceived stamina and the outcomes of the shuttle verify (r = 0.54, p<0.001).

    STATISTICAL analysis

    health and sporting actions were divided into vigour (weight practicing and rock hiking) and cardio activities (all final actions). Contractual playing fame became described as a binary variable relating to whether or now not the participant held knowledgeable contract or turned into an newbie. Cox's proportional risks regression turned into used to investigate the effects of old injuries and preseason real undertaking in the case of time to first harm episode (from 10 August 1997, the first day on which matches have been played). For the 380 avid gamers who had been now not injured on or earlier than the final healthy of the season (9 can also 1998), time to first injury episode turned into recorded as at least 274 days (censored instances). the following variables had been entered into the model in a stepwise manner on the p = 0.05 significance degree: contractual taking part in repute; age (<20, 20–29 or ≥30 years on 1 August 1997); stage of guide work; manual hours labored; attendance at preseason training (variety of weeks and sessions of attendance, and usual number of classes per week); injury fame at the end of the previous season, and before and all the way through preseason training; weekly hours of aerobic and vigor actions; perceived health in terms of velocity and stamina. power was now not regarded since the query had no longer been validated. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates have been used to calculate the proportion of avid gamers who remained free of harm during the season for the six agencies of avid gamers in fig 1. The six comparison corporations have been in line with the final Cox regression model, with weeks of attendance at preseason rugby working towards divided into two categories on the groundwork of the median attendance of 5.5 weeks (all skilled avid gamers attended for greater than 5 weeks). Stepwise binary logistic regression turned into also used to determine the outcomes of those abilities possibility elements on subsequent damage reputation, which turned into defined as a binary variable concerning even if or not a participant had been injured during the season. To examine the bigger possibility of damage in the early part of the season,3–6 harm over the primary three months became also considered. the odds ratios (ORs) and the hazard for the logistic and Cox regressions show which components increase the risk of injury. a price of 1 implies no multiplied risk, and a worth superior (much less) than 1 implies an accelerated (reduced) chance of harm.

    figure 1

    share of rugby avid gamers who continue to be free of harm because the season progresses through contractual reputation, attendance at preseason rugby practising, and injury popularity on the conclusion of the previous season. (A) beginner players who attended rugby practising for only six weeks; (B) novice avid gamers who attended rugby working towards for more than five weeks; (C) professional gamers (who all attended rugby practising for greater than 5 weeks). The variety of avid gamers still prone to subsequent harm is given above the curves.

    outcomes characteristics OF players

    The mean (SD) age of the 803 rugby gamers become 23.9 (6.65) years (range eleven–53); 59 (7.3%) were below 16 years historic, 192 (23.9%) sixteen–19, 205 (25.5%) 20–24, 196 (24.4%) 25–29, ninety nine (12.3%) 30–34, and 52 (6.5%) 35 years ancient or greater. Of the 800 players who answered the nationality query, 776 have been British, 18 have been Australian or New Zealanders, two have been Irish, three have been African, and one was American. The usual taking part in positions designated through the players had been reasonably consultant of all taking part in positions: prop (14.3%); hooker (7.2%); lock forward (12.3%); wing ahead (14.6%); quantity eight (5.three%); scrum half (6.2%); stand off (5.7%); wing three quarters (12.eight%); centre (13.8%); fullback (7.6%).

    physical pastime, RUGBY practising ATTENDANCE, AND injury popularity OVER THE summer duration

    4 fifths of the avid gamers undertook preseason rugby working towards, attending a median of 14 classes (n = 621, interquartile range 20). Some 83% (656/795) of gamers had participated in aerobic and/or vigor activities during the sixteen week summer season length, for a median of six hours every week (n = 641, interquartile latitude 6). About 32% of players pronounced that they were injured or were carrying an damage at the conclusion of the previous season, and 27% of players both had an harm that delayed the delivery of preseason rugby training or suffered an injury all through preseason working towards. Contractual enjoying reputation, having an injury that delayed the birth of preseason working towards, having an harm all through preseason practising, and undertaking physical actions over summer influenced attendance at preseason rugby practising (desk 1).

    table 1

    components influencing attendance at preseason rugby practicing

    injury EPISODES during SEASON

    The frequency, nature, and influence of accidents sustained while enjoying suits had been suggested in other places in this cohort of gamers.10 a complete of 675 injury episodes befell to 423 (53%) avid gamers in training or suits during the 1997–1998 season (576 in fits involving 381 players). All however some of the 30 knowledgeable avid gamers have been injured. The in shape damage incidence turned into maximum initially of the season (10 August to 31 October: 22.0 damage episodes per one thousand participant hours (ninety five% self belief interval (CI) 18.7 to 25.three); 1 November to 31 January: 14.2 (eleven.eight to 16.5); 1 February to 9 may: 13.1 (10.3 to 15.9)). This changed into also genuine for match duration occurrence (31.6 (27.7 to 35.5), 21.eight (18.9 to 24.7), and 20.0 (16.6 to 23.5) respectively).

    RELATION BETWEEN PRESEASON physical endeavor AND SUBSEQUENT RUGBY harm

    As there changed into a powerful relation between harm popularity over the season and participant's contractual popularity (χ2 verify: 22.four, df = 1, p<0.001), estimates of damage chance have been adjusted for this component the use of binary logistic regression. avid gamers who had been aged 25–29 years, had an harm on the conclusion of the outdated season, attended preseason practising more often, and pronounced an extended degree of perceived fitness had a far better chance of subsequent injury (desk 2).

    desk 2

    Relation between damage popularity over season and factors of interest adjusted for contractual fame

    After adjustment for contractual playing status, Cox regression confirmed a 3.9% (95% CI 1.9 to 5.9) relative boost in the possibility of injury for each extra preseason training week attended, and a sixty one.2% (ninety five% CI 32.2 to 96.5) relative raise for these gamers who have been injured or have been carrying an harm on the conclusion of the outdated season (table three). determine 1 illustrates the change in the proportion of gamers closing freed from harm over the rugby season in avid gamers with and with out these possibility elements, and confirms the additive impact of these factors. an identical estimates of injury chance had been bought from the logistic regressions, with a bit greater odds ratios for damage in the first three months, apart from contractual status, in comparison with the total season (table three).

    table 3

    Cox and logistic regression fashions

    The demo of injuries differed between amateur avid gamers who attended preseason working towards for 5 or fewer weeks and more than five weeks, and between newbie avid gamers who were and were now not injured at the conclusion of the old season (table 4).

    desk 4

    healthy prevalence of different types of damage sustained during season in newbie players

    dialogue

    other than a presentation of a preliminary analyze to the Fourth World Congress of Science and football in 1999,11 here's the primary file to examine preseason real undertaking, health, and injury, and relate them to subsequent damage in a large cohort of adult rugby union players. It indicates an elevated chance of rugby harm for skilled players, people that attend preseason rugby training for an extended duration, and for avid gamers who have been injured or were carrying an injury at the conclusion of the previous season.

    As suggestions on the stage of preseason physical recreation and rugby working towards changed into accumulated retrospectively, the accuracy of this tips may additionally had been plagued by gamers' reminiscence don't forget. The diverse methods of information assortment may also have delivered a bias into the survey. however, the survey response cost changed into high (eighty four%), and it is not going that such bias will unduly have an effect on the consequences of the survey. although perceived velocity and stamina correlated reasonably smartly with the fitness check in the pilot survey, it became now not possible to validate electricity, which is a crucial element for opting for health in rugby gamers. additionally, the fitness questions had been simplest validated on a small group of beneath 19 players, and it is thought that their fitness belief in all fairness representative of all rugby gamers. besides the fact that children, the degree of fitness did not seem like a crucial factor as soon as different factors had been considered. We have no idea even if this changed into because health changed into no longer measured scientifically or no matter if it isn't an important element. besides the fact that children, other measures of health (the stage and weekly number of hours of manual work and weekly hours of aerobic and power actions undertaken) didn't predict subsequent injury repute. This suggests that the way through which health became measured in this examine is much less crucial than may also have been anticipated.

    probably the most univariate relations with subsequent harm could have befell by chance on account of the variety of statistical exams presented (unadjusted exact p values given). despite the fact, the center of attention is positioned on the multivariate analyses, which are achieved in two other ways to determine which components are continuously vital. The components within the multivariate fashions are adjusted for all other elements already within the mannequin (univariate fashions adjusted for contractual taking part in popularity). therefore the consequences are independently associated with subsequent harm. as an instance, perceived health predicts subsequent injury status univariately, however isn't critical as soon as contractual enjoying status, attendance at preseason practicing, and harm reputation on the conclusion of the outdated season has been taken into consideration.

    there are lots of viable the reason why gamers who attend greater preseason training weeks may additionally have an improved risk of subsequent harm. they will likely have had greater follow in rugby linked manoeuvres such as tackling. This may additionally boost a participant's self assurance to make extra injury susceptible manoeuvres which much less skilled players would not effort. These players may also play greater intensively. gamers who attend training more generally had been extra likely to undertake energy actions, and gamers of a bigger construct have been found to have a better risk of damage.8 youngsters, it's unclear if this is a true injury risk aspect or a final result of the relations among quite a few different chance components. character and the “deserve to win” could even be influences, despite the fact the former became no longer found to be a significant factor in injuries sustained in the handle.12 This might have been because opposing avid gamers in the identical game are taking part in, in well-known, on the identical team degree, and their “deserve to win” may be identical. it is possible that personality and the “need to win” differs between the maximum and lowest levels of play. definitely, the injury price differs; the existing survey cited a one hundred eighty% relative increase in the possibility of harm for skilled avid gamers. This has the same opinion with observations made all through the 1995 Rugby World Cup13 and other surveys reporting bigger damage quotes amongst people that play at a far better group degree.5,6,14 in addition, the period of the nice and cozy up before matches15 and working towards classes and using distinct items of protecting equipment16 may also affect the risk of injury. It became not feasible to measure these elements, as a result of the huge number of suits and practicing sessions coated in this survey. harm repute earlier than and during preseason practicing affected attendance at preseason training. It might be anticipated that avid gamers injured all the way through their preseason working towards would attend vastly fewer working towards classes all over a shorter time span than players who have been no longer injured, but the reverse turned into genuine. gamers who had an damage that delayed their preseason working towards did attend rugby working towards for significantly fewer weeks than non-injured avid gamers, however there became no change in the variety of classes attended. Some of these players could be working towards more intensively to make up for weeks when they have been unable to coach on account of injury, increasing the likelihood of future injury.17 There turned into no proof that avid gamers who attended preseason training greater commonly were more likely to attain subsequent gentle tissue injuries, which may additionally point out overtraining. The variety of hours of guide work, cardio activities, and vigor actions undertaken right through the summer time duration, stage of manual work, and fitness levels earlier than the start of the season had little impact on subsequent injury. This means that injury chance is connected much more to rugby working towards (class of activities undertaken in rugby working towards or personalities and characteristics of players carrying out practicing more often) than to typical participant health. This agrees with an extra study that discovered that electricity and suppleness did not exert a significant position in picking injuries in a analyze of elite young athletes.18 besides the fact that children, the preliminary analyze carried out in New Zealand found that avid gamers with ≥forty weekly hours of strenuous endeavor overlooked more enjoying time via damage than those less active,11 no associations between injury chance and the consequences of the health exams had been mentioned. Residual fatigue brought about with the aid of heavy preseason training rather than overtraining may additionally make avid gamers greater more likely to be subsequently injured. a further study, which examined avid gamers for three consecutive seasons, has suggested that fatigue may increase accidents in novice rugby league gamers.19 Peripheral vision of rugby avid gamers may be suffering from fatigue,20 and more than half of accidents that occur in the tackle turn up within the tackled participant's peripheral imaginative and prescient (19%) or from behind him (33%).12 besides the fact that children, confounding elements make it problematic to verify precisely why avid gamers who attend greater weeks of preseason practicing have an improved risk of rugby harm.

    gamers who undertook no preseason practise for the drawing close season did not have a higher subsequent harm expense. then again, adequate preseason instruction is essential, as lack of preseason training can boost the risk of subsequent injury.7 As mentioned above, accelerated attendance at preseason training might also not be a direct cause of accelerated harm possibility; it is feasible that different underlying elements, involving multiplied attendance at preseason practicing, increase the possibility of damage. hence a reduction within the variety of weeks that gamers attend preseason working towards may also no longer always cut back the chance of subsequent harm.

    players who have been injured or had been carrying an harm on the conclusion of the outdated season had a much better chance of subsequent injury. possibility of subsequent harm turned into additionally higher for in the past injured avid gamers in the preliminary study in New Zealand.eleven This larger chance of subsequent harm could have came about for equivalent motives as previously mentioned. furthermore, their outlook and behavior against rugby injury may be a factor. throughout the 1993–1994 season, one fifth of senior players completed the suit through which they had been injured.21 avid gamers who are attempting to disregard their injuries or who do not searching for treatment for them promptly can be extra more likely to be in consequence injured. These gamers will become susceptible to recurrent accidents peculiarly if they don't leisure their accidents sufficiently earlier than returning to play. a casual attitude to injuries has been stated in New Zealand, the place 39% of avid gamers had performed rugby towards clinical information at some time of their careers.22 players could also have a far better chance of subsequent damage in the event that they do not hold fitness and psychological well being whereas they're injured.23

    This analyze has discovered that players attending preseason working towards for extra weeks and those injured at the conclusion of the outdated season had an multiplied possibility of subsequent injury, but there is no clear explanation of why this is the case. further research is required that can verify preseason health in a greater particular and comprehensive manner and relate it to subsequent damage.

    Acknowledgments

    We thank here: Ms Sue Hutton, our survey coordinator; Dr Barbara Russell; rugby club officials and observers at every taking part rugby membership; the gamers; the analysis nurses; the chartered physiotherapists of the health assessment and activities damage health facility, institution of Edinburgh branch of real training. The survey bought fiscal assist from a furnish supplied through the foreign Rugby settlement believe. The furnish changed into administered through the Scottish Rugby Union.

    Take home message

    players who attend rugby working towards extra generally are more likely to be because of this injured, however there is no facts to indicate that here is as a result of they are practicing too challenging or too often. damage possibility is extra more likely to be involving the classification of rugby working towards activities undertaken or the personalities and characteristics of players in preference to standard player health. avid gamers may still be inspired to allow their injuries to heal sufficiently earlier than returning to the game.

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